Barbarous, destructive attitude of the central departments of natural resources of Kazakhstan led 70-90. To the environmental crisis in the country, take in some regions of the catastrophic nature. One of the toughest environmental problems is the radioactive contamination of the territory of Kazakhstan. Nuclear tests conducted since 1949 at the Semipalatinsk test site resulted in contamination of vast territories in central and eastern Kazakhstan. The country has had five landfills, where nuclear tests were conducted in the vicinity of its borders is a Chinese Lop Nor test site. Radiation background in Kazakhstan increased as a result of the formation of ozone holes in spacecraft launch from the Baikonur.
Huge challenge for Kazakhstan of the radioactive waste. Thus, UMP Factory has amassed about 100,000 tons of waste contaminated with uranium, thorium, and waste storage facility located in the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk. In Kazakhstan there are only 3 repository for nuclear waste and they are all located in the aquifer. That seriousness of the problem of radioactive contamination has led to one of the first laws of sovereign Kazakhstan was the decree of 30. 08. 1991, the banning of tests at the Semipalatinsk test site. One of the most serious environmental problems of Kazakhstan became the depletion of water resources.
Increased consumption of fresh water, primarily for irrigated agriculture led to salinization and depletion of natural water sources. Particularly disastrous was the shallowing of the Aral Sea due to irrational use of water Amu Darya and Syr Darya. The sea level dropped by 13 meters, who uncovered the seabed turned into a salt desert. The annual dust storms spread the salt on the vast territory of Eurasia. The decrease mirrors the sea has led to a change in wind direction and climatic characteristics of the region.
A similar situation exists in Lake Balkhash, the level of which is 10-15 years fell by 2. -3 meters. At the same time, the rise of the Caspian Sea, caused by ill-conceived decision stripping the Gulf of Kara-Bogazgol. Already flooded huge areas of coastal grazing areas and promising oil-bearing areas. Zyryanovsk lead and Leninogorsk polymetallic complexes have led to contamination of the Irtysh. Alarming environmental situation prevailing in the valley of the rivers Ili and the Urals. In the critical condition of the land resources of Kazakhstan, depleted fertile arable land, pasture becomes desert. Remains a serious problem of air pollution, especially in large industrial centers.
National priority in the "Strategy 2030" RK include: environmental safety, rational use of natural resources, environmental well-being of citizens and some of the problems of social ecology. Reaction to the first environmental crises and catastrophes was expressed in the "Environment Act" of 1997. The problem of ecology and conservation - is rational and planned use of natural resources, protect the environment from pollution is a planned system of state control, international and public events aimed at the rational use, protection and restoration of natural resources, the satisfaction of material and cultural needs of future generations.
National environmental issues Zones of ecological disaster in the Republic of Kazakhstan to continue to be the Aral Sea and Semipalatinsk regions, where there have been destroying the natural ecological systems, degradation of flora and fauna, due to unfavorable environmental conditions caused substantial harm to public health. Currently, the regions adjacent to the former Semipalatinsk test site (85 settlements with a population of almost 72 thousand people), there is a high level of cancer incidence and mortality, cardiovascular diseases, congenital malformations among newborns and the effects of premature aging.
In the Aral Sea ecological disaster zone (178 settlements with a population of 186 thousand people) has a high level of gastrointestinal diseases and anemia, especially among women and children, infant mortality and birth defects. Depletion and pollution of water resources, and TZ problems associated with intensive development of resources of the Caspian Sea. Kazakhstan belongs to the category of countries with a large deficit of water resources. Currently, water bodies are polluted heavily in mining, metallurgical and chemical industries, utilities and cities represent a real environmental threat.
Of the rivers of southern Kazakhstan the most polluted Badam and Talas. In Badam discharged wastewater Shymkent Oil-GIRO industrial complex in Talas - waste water of sugar and alcohol plants. Near Taraz sewage plant primary processing of wool, leather and shoe factory and other enterprises polluted Talas - Assinskoe field of groundwater, which is the only source of water supply the city of Taraz. Continuing pollution channel Talas-Asse and surrounding areas from sewage Taraz phosphorus plant.
Wastewater Karaganda synthetic rubber plant, mercury-containing contaminated river Nura and Nurinskoe reservoir. Mercury-contaminated stream, and the Nura River, used for water supply and livestock watering. Water pollution has reached such proportions that in the basins of several rivers breached natural biological and hydro chemical regimes. Severe pollution are Syr Darya, Lake Balkhash, etc. The main pollutants of water sources are ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, petroleum and chemical industries, waste water which significantly increases the water content of harmful substances.
Transboundary environmental problems pose a real external threat to the ecological security of the country, a decision which is provided with modern actions of neighboring states in the framework of international treaties. In early 2003, Kazakhstan joined the Bazilskoy Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their disposal, which allowed to establish new customs regulations on the declaration of hazardous wastes and prevent their subsequent flow into the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan under the guise of recycled materials and products.