Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. A psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs known, ethyl alcohol produces a state known as alcohol intoxication when consumed. Best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, it is also used in thermometers, as a solvent, and as a fuel. In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol or spirits. he same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion liters. From 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global gasoline type fuel use increased from 3. 7% to 5. 4%. In 2011 worldwide ethanol fuel production reached 22. 36 billion U. S. liquid gallons (bg) (84. 6 billion liters), with the United States as the top producer with 13. bg (52. 6 billion liters), accounting for 62. 2% of global production, followed by Brazil with 5. 6 bg (21. 1 billion liters). Ethanol fuel has a "gasoline gallon equivalency" (GGE) value of 1. 5 US gallons (5. 7 L), which means 1. 5 gallons of ethanol produces the energy of one gallon of gasoline. Ethanol fuel is widely used in Brazil and in the United States, and together both countries were responsible for 87. 1% of the world's ethanol fuel production in 2011. Most cars on the road today in the U. S. a run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and ethanol represented 10% of the U. S. gasoline fuel supply in 2011. Since 1976 the Brazilian government has made it mandatory to blend ethanol with gasoline, and since 2007 the legal blend is around 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline (E25). By December 2011 Brazil had a fleet of 14. 8 million flex-fuel automobiles and light trucks 1. 5 million flex-fuel motorcycles that regularly use neat ethanol fuel (known as E100). Bioethanol is a form of renewable energy that can be produced from agricultural feedstocks.
It can be made from very common crops such as sugar cane, potato, manioc, and corn. There has been considerable debate about how useful bioethanol will be in replacing gasoline. Concerns about its production and use relate to increased food prices due to the large amount of arable land required for crops, as well as the energy and pollution balance of the whole cycle of ethanol production, especially from corn. Recent developments with cellulosic ethanol production and commercialization may allay some of these concerns.