Each country has set up the program for the world heritage preservation. Not only it is considered to be the benefit of the international countries for preservation but also all people should help to take care of and make public relations to foreigners to visit the valuable site. Because it can build income into the country and it is deemed to announce the significance of each country around the world. Therefore, each country should preserve and protect their own heritage and proud of it.
The world heritage sites are considered as the natural and cultural significance. There is the international program for selecting the cultural and natural sites which are unique and some of them would be obtained funds to reform or improve each site. The fund promotes technical and financial assistance to World Heritage sites, including the enhancement of heritage sites in compliance with the Convention and the development of management plans.
The sites are designated as having “outstanding universal value” under the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. This convention, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1972, provides a framework for international cooperation in preserving and protecting cultural treasures and natural areas throughout the world. There are three types of sites: cultural, natural, and mixed. Cultural heritage sites include hundreds of historic buildings and town sites, important archaeological sites, and works of monumental sculpture or painting. The ratio of cultural to natural sites on the World Heritage List is roughly 3 to 1. Several new sites are added to the list at the middle of each year.
World Heritage designations often boost local economies by encouraging tourism; in addition, UNESCO funds numerous efforts to preserve and restore sites in developing nations subject to unusual levels of pollution, natural hazards, or other problems may be placed on the associated List of World Heritage in Danger until improvements are made. There are two world heritage sites which will be studied for this research; Kakadu National Park in Australia and the Great Wall of China. The first one was classified as the mixed world heritage site because this national park represents unity of archaeology and ethnology. It is located in the north of Australia and it had been living areas for more than 40,000 years ago. (Thai World Heritage Information Centre, 2012) Many beautiful arts were found such as mural painting, rock engraving, and archaeological sites with the record of history and living things’ life style.
The evidences have been emerged since the era of hunting prior to the era of aborigines. Therefore, it is the symbolic sample with complicated ecosystem in plain and lowland areas including it is a habitat for plants and rare regional animals. There are many plants and animals so this national park has diversity of plants and many species of land and marine animals such as bird, ant, insect, turtle, dugong, etc. This area is also benefits for hundred of aboriginal people so it is very interesting to study their lives and cultures as well. Since this national park is archaeological areas so to analyze and get important evidences for this prominent place is very necessary.
Many valuable things found are excavated and identified such as stone tools, axes, polished stone, and the sites of rock painting for 18,000 years ago. It was proposed as the cultural property on the World Heritage List in 1981. Until many academicians supported and preserved this national park by establishing a fund of documentary evidence and served as important sources of information. The second one is the Great Wall of China. It was established in c. 220 B. C. The Qin Shi Huang dynasty (Rosenberg, 2012) graciously pleased to join all parts of an old fort together in order to protect invasion. The construction had been continued until the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). (Rosenberg, 2012) Then, the Great Wall of China became the world's largest military object.
The historical and strategic importance is accompanied with architectural features. Its total length is more than 20,000 kilometers. Before construction of bricks, it was constructed by rock, soil, and wood and some places used granite or mud. At present, the Great Wall of China is the largest construction in the world and longest time for building and it was also given a name of the largest grave. It is because almost million labors and prisoners were fettered at their necks among bad weather condition for long time so thousands of them died and buried under the wall. This research indicates the worthy elements including historical and cultural information.
However, at moment tourists are facing some problem to reach the Great of Wall, for example, the remoteness of the sites made it more difficult for tourists to travel to them (Vazifdar 2012). Therefore, we should more consider its benefits and elaborately introspect how the difficult methods of the Great Wall of China building and study in-depth information, we will know that China has the regulations on the protection of the Great Wall and systematical management. The regulation has well regulated visitors' and local residents' behaviors on the Great Wall. When they visit the wall, tourists must observe his or her obligations to protect it. The regulation has 31 articles in all regarding to every uncivil behavior those tourists or local residents may practice on the wall (Travelchinaguide, 2012).
Further study, research and fieldwork should be promoted in heritage conservation and preservation and both public and private sectors should cooperate with local and international partners. In addition, coordinating with its UNESCO partner and World Heritage Centre, will facilitate the exchange of research, scholarship, technical expertise, and student training in historic preservation and cultural resources management related to UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The important principles should be setting up innovate policies, practicing in the field of historic preservation, and emphasizing on sustainable development for a dynamic environment. The beneficial knowledge will be expanded through many researched with faculty and scholars working in fields related to heritage studies and preservation.
In addition, the systematical design and management to prepare for work in the conservation are very essential because we can take account into restoration, adaptive reuse of historic buildings, landscapes and cultural artifacts. World Heritage Studies is a unique and innovative program that takes up the technical, socio-economic, cultural, ecological and political challenges related to the protection of World Heritage. Then, we can develop concepts and strategies for the preservation and future use of World Heritage Sites including the planning and work for infrastructure to promote a gentle and sustainable tourism, the establishment of participatory structures to involve and educate local populations, and decision-makers.
We work as educators at heritage sites and museums developing new concepts of presentation beyond the traditional exhibition thus stressing the future-oriented aspects of heritage. In conclusion, this research was to study the protection and preservation of World Heritage Sites. World Heritage belongs to all humanity and the rights of the global collective must replace the old individual rights. To persuade the public, a new revolutionary way of thinking or systems thinking should replace the contrary old thoughts and ways.
The key elements approach to the protection and management of World Heritage Sited are designation of specific assets within World Heritage Sites (listed buildings, schedule ancient monuments, parks and gardens, conservation areas, areas of outstanding national beauty, etc. , consideration in the determination of planning applications, policy inclusion should be conducted by local authorities in their local plan to protect the outstanding universal value, authenticity and integrity of World Heritage Sites, an agreed management plan should be available for each world heritage site, local commitment, a stakeholders steering group and support from the key partners, and effective coordination, normally by a dedicated coordinator. (Department for Communities and Local Government) The establishment of various forms display and transfer knowledge for new interpretations of World Heritage. A further field of employment is the work of specialists in national and international educational institutions, especially in the field of adult education. A new image of World Heritage will be contributed to widening the access to this topic for broader segments of society.