In Egypt the priests were in charge of making a record of their pharaohs and marking the most important happenings of their reigns. Mesopotamia used the Code of Hammurabi which was laws that concerned daily life, business, medicine, property, and family. It was based on an eye for an eye (revenge) and was to give justice for all. In Egypt the pharaoh was considered a god that ruled the Egyptians and had absolute power that made all the laws of the land and decisions. This is both civilizations form of government and was successful for years; some of those laws are still in modern day government.
Egyptians used the Nile River which provided food and water, farming, and transportation of goods. This helps them in their survival for the fact that they were living in the middle of a desert. In Mesopotamia, they developed city-states which were around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. These rivers were a key in their survival; they used these rivers for food, transportation, as well as plants. The rivers created a Fertile Crescent which allowed farming in Mesopotamia, the Fertile Crescent were important it was surrounded by desert and anything outside of it can’t be farmed. Using heir environment was an important key factor for the survival of these two great civilizations. As I said earlier Egyptians believed that the pharaoh was a god and was one with the divine. The Egyptians (supposedly) built the pyramids for the pharaohs to be buried in after they died and along with all of his possessions. The Sumerians and Akkadians practiced polytheism which was the worship of many gods. They believed that keeping the gods happy was the key to happiness and prosperity. They built big temples called ziggurats which were supposed to link Earth with the heavens and link people with the gods.
These were the beliefs of the civilizations and have shape humans in to believing in religion and God. All of this contributed to the success of the two civilizations. With their government controlling their actions and giving justice where needed. They also controlled their environment to use for their own advantage which allowed them to eat and use for transportation. Building great monuments for their beliefs and believing to obey all the rules of God as well. I believe all this contributed to the success of two giant civilizations.